• 2017.07
  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
  • 4
  • 5
  • 6
  • 7
  • 8
  • 9
  • 10
  • 11
  • 12
  • 13
  • 14
  • 15
  • 16
  • 17
  • 18
  • 19
  • 20
  • 21
  • 22
  • 23
  • 24
  • 25
  • 26
  • 27
  • 28
  • 29
  • 30
  • 31
  • 2017.09
Korean military in 1894
Problems of the Far East: Japan - Korea - China 1894
George Nathaniel Curzon

The true comicality, however, of the Korean
by military, of a species unique in the world. The infantry lined the roadway, and were for the most part lying asleep upon the ground. They had almost as many flags as men; and their muskets, which I examined as they stood piled together, were commonly destitute either of hammer, trigger, or plate, sometimes of all three, and were frequently
only held together by string ; while the bayonets were bent and rusty.

Infinitely more remarkable, however, were the cavalry. These were clad in uniforms probably some 300 years old, consisting of a battered helmet with a spike, and of a cuirass of black leather studded with brass bosses, and worn over a heavy jerkin of moth-eaten brocade.

Enormous jack-boots completed the costume, and rendered it difficult for the men to mount their steeds, even although these were rarely more than eleven hands high. Banners of yellow, red, and green, with a tuft of pheasant-feathers at the top, and stacks of arrows, were carried in front of the officers, who were with difficulty supported by squires upon their pyramidal saddles. The middle of the roadway was supposed to be kept clear, and was strewn with a riband of sand, about a foot and a half in breadth ; but this was trampled upon and scattered almost as soon as sprinkled.

Throughout the morning processions of ministers, courtiers, and officials passed along on their way to or from the Palace. The majority of these were borne by shouting retainers in open chairs, on the back of which rested a leopard-skin. In some cases the sedan was also supported by a single leg underneath, terminating in a wheel, which ran along the middle of the roadway, easing the burden and increasing

Compare the account of Hamel, 240 years ago : ' Their Horse wear Cuirasses, Headpieces, and Swords, as also Bows and Arrows, and Whips like ours, only that theirs have small iron Points.
Their Foot as well as they wear a Corselet, a Headpiece, a Sword,
and Musket or Half-pike.
The Officers carry nothing but Bows and Arrows.'
【2016/06/27 12:58 】 | 定型文 | 有り難いご意見(0)
This entry is basically Japanese version of previous one.


North China Herald May 5 1905
ノース・チャイナ・ヘラルド紙 1905年5月5日号

Japan's Task in Korea

Japan has before her the delicate and difficult task of placating Corea, and winning the hearts of this conservative people.
It will cost nothing to take possession of Corea and of Corea's government, but it will tax all her skill to win Corea's heart and confidence.


There is in the peninsula to-day, as there has been for a thousand years, an ingrained dislike of Japan and the Japanese. As naturally as the Corean says Kong-ja-nim (The Master Confucius) he says of Japan Wai-nim or Keu-gajie-nim(Contemptible wretch).
It is in the most cases an unreasonable, foolish dislike, but it is a part of his bone and fibre and breaks forth from him on all occasions.

【2012/09/11 14:58 】 | 定型文 | 有り難いご意見(1)
アーソン・グレブストのI Korea原文発見

I Korea ; Minnen och studier fran "Morgonstillhetens land". William Grebst

Han maste for yei's skull kanna till allt mellan himmel och jord och kunna besvara alla fragor, hvilket han ocksa, utan att i sitt hjarta ha for afsikt att bedraga, gor pa ett satt, som ar rent af forbluffande genom de slutsatser han bygger upp pa ingenting alls. Det hander aldrig, att han har ratt. Men han ar lika stolt anda. Och skulle man betvifla hans utsagor och forsoka sla honom med osanning, skulle han ga tusen vagar for att radda yei, och aldrig ge tappt, innan han lyckats inbilla den tviflande, eller inbilla sig sjalf att han inbillat den tviflande, att han haft ratt.

「悲劇の朝鮮」 アーソン・グレブスト A:son Grebst 1912年 (高演義・河在龍訳 1989年 白帝社)

【2012/05/27 11:34 】 | 定型文 | 有り難いご意見(1)


We succumb to (the swords of) these Japanese soldiers, while we have excellent archery skills and elite cavalry.


The Japanese sword works only in close combat, Korean archery is long range weapon. If we fought for our lives,they wouldn't be able to approach us.


We abandoned our fathers' foe and even tributed daughters to the enemy, why we didn't make desperate efforts?
【2012/05/16 13:48 】 | 定型文 | 有り難いご意見(0)
Lying as Korean culture

Kokusho Fukugo Keiji
Arai Hakuseki (1657~1725)
Koreans are full of cheat and lies. They don't care loyalty when it's about money.

「朝鮮幽囚記」 ヘンドリック・ハメル (生田滋訳 1969年 平凡社東洋文庫)

Hendrick Hamel(1630–1692)'s narrative of captivity and travels in Korea
The Koreans are very much addicted to stealing, and so apt to cheat and lie that there is no trusting them.

「朝鮮紀行」 イザベラ・バード 1897年 (時岡敬子訳 1998年 講談社学術文庫)

Korea and her neighbors
Isabella Bird(1831-1904)

Men who are in easy circumstances go continually from one house to another to kill time. They never talk politics, it is too dangerous, but retail the latest gossip of
the court or city and the witticisms attributed to great men, and tell, hear, and invent news.

The common people meet in the streets, the house fronts, and the inns. They ask each other endless questions, of a nature that we should think most impertinent, regarding each
other's business, work, and money transactions, and for the latest news. It is every man's business to hear or create all the news he can. What he hears he embellishes by lies and exaggerations, Korea is the country of wild rumors. What a Korean knows, or rather hears, he tells.

ノース・チャイナ・ヘラルド紙 1905年5月5日号 (「外国新聞に見る日本3」 1992年 毎日コミニュケーションズ)
朝鮮ほど贈賄や腐敗がよく見られる国もないだろう。また、この半島ほどなんの理由もなくだましたり、だまされたりすることが広く行なわれている国もない。そして、これまで朝鮮政府ほど詐欺、うそ、横領が満ちあふれ、骨の髄まで堕落した政府はなかった。しかし、朝鮮はそのような自分たちのやり方に慣れ、これには気づかなくなっており、他人の欠点ばかりが見えるのだ。 (エッソン・サード記者)

North China Herald 5 May 1905
Esson Third
No land could possibly make a greater showing for bribery and corruption than Korea herself.
On no piece of ground have men deceived and been deceived more universally than in this peninsula.
No Government ever existed that was more infected with rottenness to the bones, cheating, lying, defrauding.
But Korea has grown accustomed to and unconscious of her own way of doing such things and sees only the fault of others.

「悲劇の朝鮮」 アーソン・グレブスト A:son Grebst 1912年 (高演義・河在龍訳 1989年 白帝社)

I Korea – Minnen och studier från “Morgonstillhetens Land”(In. Korea – Memories and Studies from the Land of the Morning Calm)
A:son Grebst 

Yangban suppose to know everything as scholar, they have to be able to answer any questions.
They didn't mean to cheat but the tricky reasoning they make is amazing.

ジョージ・ケナン、ニューヨーク・アウトルック紙 1905

The New York Outlook 1905
George Kennan
The Koreans are mostly exaggerators or barefaced liars, by heredity and by training, and it is impossible to accept without careful verification, the statements which they make with regard to Japanese misbehavior.

A Country of Liars by Kim Dae-joong 2005
In every country there are crimes that uniquely reflect its society. National Intelligence Service director-designate Kim Seung-kyu, in a lecture he gave late in May when he was justice minister, said: "The three representative crimes of our country are perjury, libel and fraud." In simple comparison, not taking into account population ratio, South Korea saw 16 times as many perjury cases in 2003 than Japan, 39 times as many libel cases and 26 times as many instances of fraud. That is extraordinarily high given Japan's population is three times our own.
The common denominator of the three crimes is lying; in short, we live in a country of liars. The prosecution devotes 70 percent of its work to handling the three crimes, the former justice minister said. And because suspects lie so much, the indictment rate in fraud cases is 19.5 percent, in perjury 29 percent and in libel 43.1 percent. "Internationally, too, there is a perception that South Korea's representative crime is fraud," Kim said, adding that recent major scandals show how rampant lying is in this country.

The prosecution is not free from responsibility, since there is a sense in which its ingrained attitude in dealing with suspects for libel, fraud and perjury has contributed to making the crimes the scourge they have become.

Lying is so common in our society because few recognize that it leads to crime. "What's wrong with telling a little lie?" they think. And here the big problem is that men of power, rather than ordinary citizens, indulge in lying on a massive scale, to the point where it is regarded as a necessary means of survival in some circles.
【2012/01/14 16:05 】 | 定型文 | 有り難いご意見(0)
Korea and her neighbors, Isabella Bird 1905

"Outside the west gate, on a plain near the Peking Pass,was a roofed and highly decorated arch of that form known as the pailow, and close by it a sort of palace hall, in which every new sovereign of Korea waited for the coming of a special envoy from Peking, whom he joined at the pailow, accompanying him to the palace, where he received from him his
investiture as sovereign."

"Starting from the English Legation and the Customs' buildings, we left the city by the West Gate, and passing the stone stumps which up till lately supported the carved and colored roof under which generations of Korean kings after their accession met the Chinese envoys, who came in great state to invest them with Korean sovereignty, and through the narrow and rugged defile known as the Peking Pass, we left the unique capital and its lofty clambering wall out of sight."

"The Chinese colony was in 1894 nearly as large, and differed in no respect from such a colony anywhere else. The foreigners depend for many things on the Chinese shops, and as the Koreans like the Chinese, they do some trade with them also. The imposing element connected with China was the yamen of Yuan, the Minister Resident and representative of Korea's Suzerain, by many people regarded as “the power behind the throne,” who is reported to have gone more than once unbidden into the King's presence, and to have reproached him with his conduct of affairs. Great courtyards and lofty gates on which are painted the usual guardian gods, and a brick dragon screen, seclude the palace in which Yuan lived with his guards and large retinue ; and the number of big, supercilious men, dressed in rich brocades and satins, who hung about both this Palace and the Consulate, impressed the Koreans with the power and stateliness within."
【2011/11/11 09:40 】 | 定型文 | 有り難いご意見(0) | トラックバック(0)
Angus Hamiltonの本について
during 1910 korea was trying to restore our nation. SEOUL was the first city in asia to have electricity.
"The streets of Seoul are magnificent, spacious, clean, admirably made and well-drained.
The narrow, dirty lanes have been widened, gutters have been covered, roadways broadened.
Seoul is within measurable distance of becoming the highest, most interesting and cleanest city in the East.”
then the japanese invaded and all went to shits.


Quotes from the same book "Korea " Angus Hamilton

Editorial note
Korea has always been called The Hermit Country.
Before the war between Russia and Japan, much of which was fought within the borders of Korea, this comparatively unknown land was seldom visited by travellers.


Its geographical position made the Russo-Japanese War inevitable, where Russia was in fourtified possession; she was so near to Japan in fact as to endanger its peace if Korea were to remain in Russian hands.

As a nation Korea was altogether without means of self-defence; consequently, in order to protect this country as well as itself, Japan, with the consent of China, maintained a protectorate over Korea.

Women have gained some freedom and some recognition from law under Japanese influence

Korea with Japan
With the hope of making Korea's independence a reality, Japan employed all the resources of friendly suggestion to induce the former to adopt modern civilized methods, to reform her corrupt administration, to reorganise her police system, and to strengthen her military defence, so as to be able to fulfil her treaty obligations.


Railroad, telegraphs and telephones
Although the Koreans boast an ancient civilization of their own, the country hither to possessed hardly any public roads, except the so-called "grand road" from Seoul to the Chinese border, and a few roads between the capitol and some provincial cities.


During the China-Japan War, the Seoul - Chemulpo highway was constructed by the Japanese army, and two trunk roads from Seoul to Wonsan and Wiju respectively were similarly made by the Japanese troops during the war with Russia.
In order to facilitate transportation, the Korean Government (as stated in the report for 1906) allotted 1,500,000 yen out of the Loan for public Undertakings to construct four roads; namely, one between Chinnanpo and Ping-yang; another form Tai-ku to Ya-nil Bay, by way of Kyang-ju; a third from Yonsan kang to Mok-po; and a fourth from Keun-kang to Kunsan.


Thus "finding it expedient from the standpoint of the administration and finances of Korea" the Government finally decided to transform the entire management of communications to Japanese control.


Industrial encouragement
The Korean Government appreciating the urgent advice of the Resident-general, established in 1906, three model forests in the mountains near Seoul, Ping-yang, and tai-ku.


Nothing is more than important for the advancement of material prosperity in Korea than to give the people every opportunity of improving the old fashioned methods of agriculture and industry.

For this purpose the Residency-general, established in June 1906, an Agricultural and Industrial Model Farm at Suwon, about twenty-five miles from Seoul at at cost of 168,520 yen.
そのために統監府はモデル農場をつくった。168,520 yenなり。

Sanitation and water works
A hospital and a medical school to promote vaccination were first established in 1897 under the advice of a Japanese, Dr. Kojo, and three years later, eighty-one medical students having graduated, they were distributed throughout the provinces, by a decree of the Home Department, issued on June 27, 1897.


The well-water in Korea towns is often a cause of epidemic diseases, owing to infilteration from stagnant drains and uncleaned necessaries.
In spite of the fact that water works for the large cities are thus of vital importance, attention was never seriously paid to the matter until the Japanese Municipal Council in Seoul held a meeting to discuss this subject on january 29, 1904, and decided to build a reservoir on Nam San, for the purpose of supplying the japanese settlement with water at a cost of 100,000 yen.


Meanwhile, in March, 1906, on the urgent advice of the Resident-General, the Korean Government decided to appropriate funds for water works out of the "Loan for Public Undertakings" and to apply them for the construction of water works at Chemulpo and Ping-yang, as well as to subsidise the water works at Fusan, which had already been commenced by the Japanese settlement there.

Prior to the China-Japan War, there was no real public school system in Korea, nor any institution for giving modern education.
In fact, education has never been regarded as a matter of public interest, but only as a private affair.


In accordance with the advice of the Resident-General, the Korean Government appropriated 500,000 yen out of the "Loan for Public Undertakings" in March, 1906, for the extension of education; 350,000 yean being alloted for improving normal schools, high schools, and foreign language schools.

1904年から日本の保護国になっているので、1910年の"The streets of Seoul are magnificent, spacious, clean,”というのは日本の努力の結果なわけ。
【2011/10/05 15:10 】 | 定型文 | 有り難いご意見(0) | トラックバック(0)
Korean soldiers hardly ever wear swords
A forbidden land: voyages to the Corea 1880
Ernst Jakob Oppert
Google Books Link
The armament of the Corean soldiers is a very primitive one, and consists of quite antiquated common matchlocks, bows and
arrows, and of single and three-pointed lances.
The bows are made of very strong, tough wood, with strings of twisted hemp, which throw arrows with a two-inch iron point.
The lances with three points look like harpoons, and are of rude make, with wooden or bamboo shafts.
Foreign arms are as yet unknown in the country.


The battlements of the numerous forts and batteries which line the banks of the main rivers, are in a complete state of decay,
and the guns with which they have formerly been mounted have been deposited in arsenals.


When the French landed at Kangwha they found a large number of these guns buried near the town, which, to judge by their
appearance, must have lain there for many years past; curiously enough amongst them several breechloaders were discovered,
made upon a simple but very effective principle.


They were charged through a long square hole at the upper part of the breech, which was closed by a well-fitting sliding-piece,
and then fired by a match. In all probability these guns date from the period of the Japanese occupation, and they certainly were
several centuries old.


Common soldiers hardly ever wear swords, only officers and mandarins of a higher rank are armed with such of Japanese make,
but they are all old and rusty, and it is more than likely that these also were brought into the country by the Japanese, and were
left behind.on their withdrawal.


【2011/08/17 13:47 】 | 定型文 | 有り難いご意見(0) | トラックバック(0)
Korea has no Samurai

William Elliot Griffis, Corea the Hermit Nation 1894

This is a good specimen of Corean varnish-work carried into history. The rough facts are smoothed over by that well-applied native lacquer, which is said to resemble gold to the eyes. The official gloss has been smeared over more modern events with equal success, and even defeat is turned into golden victory.
これは朝鮮_人による歴史の塗装作業の良い見本である。つらい現実には国産塗料を塗りたくり、黄金に見せかける。さらに後世の事件に対しても、公的な虚飾が巧妙に施され、敗戦すら輝かしい勝利に変えられる。(pp. 150-151)

Cho-sen is represented as a human being, of whom the king is the head, the nobles the body, and the people the legs and feet. The breast and belly are full, while both head and lower limbs are gaunt and shrunken. The nobles not only drain the life-blood of the people by their rapacity, but they curtail the royal prerogative. The nation is suffering from a congestion, verging upon a dropsical condition of over-officialism.
朝鮮は人にたとえられ、王はその頭、貴族は胴、人民は足である。胸と腹は膨れる一方、頭と下肢はやせ細っている。貴族はその強欲で人民の生き血をすするのみならず、王の大権をも侵している。国は充血を起こし、官僚主義の浮腫を患っている。(p. 229)

The vocabulary of torture is sufficiently copious to stamp Cho--sen as still a semi-civilized nation. The inventory of the court and prison comprises iron chains, bamboos for beating the back, a paddle-shaped implement for inflicting blows upon the buttocks, switches for whipping the calves till the flesh is ravelled, ropes for sawing the flesh and bodily organs, manacles, stocks, and boards to strike against the knees and skin-bones.
法院と監獄の発明品としては、鉄鎖、背中を打つための竹、尻を打ち据えるためのパドル状の器具、肉が裂けるまでふくらはぎを叩くための鞭、肉と内臓を苛むためのロープ、手かせ、杖、そして膝とむこうずねを叩くための板等がある。(p. 234)

After their marriage, the women are inaccessible. They are nearly always confined to their apartments, nor can they even look out in the streets without permission of their lords. So strict is this rule that fathers have on occasions killed their daughters, husbands their wives, and wives have committed suicide when strangers have touched them even with their fingers.
結婚後は、女との接触は不可能である。女はほとんど常に内房に引きこもり、許しを受けずに家の外を覗くことすらできない。隔離があまりに厳しいため、部外者の指が触れたというだけで父は娘を、夫は妻を殺し、妻は自殺することがある。(p. 245)

Corean architecture is in a very primitive condition. The castles, fortifications, temples, monasteries and public buildings cannot approach in magnificence those of Japan or China. The country, though boasting hoary antiquity, has few ruins in stone. The dwellings are tiled or thatched houses, almost invariably one story high. In the smaller towns there are not arranged in regular streets, but scattered here hand there. Even in the cities and capital the streets are narrow and tortuous.
朝鮮の建築はきわめて原始的な状態にある。城郭、要塞、寺院、修道院および公共建築は、日本や中国の壮麗さにまるで及ばない。この国は古い歴史を誇っているのに、石造の遺跡がほとんどない。住居は瓦葺きか藁葺きで、ほとんど例外なく一階建てである。小都市では規則的な通りに配置されておらず、あちこちに散在している。大都市や首都でも、通りは狭くて曲がりくねっている。(p. 262)

about eighty-five per cent of the people can neither read nor write, though the percentage varies greatly with the locality.
約85パーセントの人々は読むことも書くこともできない。ただし地域差は大きい。(p. 444)

Corea has no samurai. She lacks what Japan has always had - a cultured body of men, superbly trained in both mind and body, the soldier and scholar in one, who held to a high ideal of loyalty, patriotism, and sacrifice for country.
朝鮮にはサムライがいない。日本にあって朝鮮に欠けているものは、心身ともによく鍛えられ、兵士であると同時に学者であり、忠誠心と愛国心と自己犠牲の高い理想をかかげる文化的集団である。(p. 450)

【2011/08/17 13:34 】 | 定型文 | 有り難いご意見(0) | トラックバック(0)
| ホーム |