私が最初にクムド問題を知ったのはアレクサンダー・ベネット氏によるKorea - The Black Ships of Kendo という2004年に発表された論文。
Recently, a new phenomenon has started to become apparent. One of the most significant contributors to the popularisation of budo in recent years is not only the Japanese, but also the Koreans. There has been a noticeable trend in the appearance of dojang around the world rather than dojo. Dojang is the Korean word for dojo, and where the Japanese left off, the Koreans are taking positive strides to pick up on the basis of most of the reasons I have outlined above. Particularly in regions where Korean immigrants are numerous, yudo dojang are springing up in place of judo dojo, taekwondo provides an attractive alternative to karate for self-defence and has the added bonus of being a competitive Olympic sport, hapkido is Koreanised aikido, and more recently, kumdo is making inroads into the kendo world attracting mainly Korean immigrant children at this stage, but has the potential to change the face of kendo internationally, which will eventually have far reaching consequences even in Japan. This interesting phenomenon of the gradual ‘Koreanisation’ of budo overseas is perceived by the Koreans as the internationalisation of their own Korean martial arts heritage. The Koreans are aggressive in their dissemination, sometimes nationalistic, and often very commercial in their approach, providing attractive packages for their students and instructors alike, not to mention propositions of business partnerships with already existing dojo.
As colonies of Japan, the Taiwanese and Korean populace were also ‘encouraged’ to participate in these activities.(3) Koreans took to budo with unexpected enthusiasm, and even when the war ended and the Republic of Korea was established, they maintained a commitment to kendo that persists to this day, evident in the comparatively high level and large population of enthusiasts. (4) However, in many ways the old wounds of the occupation have still not healed, and in a nationwide revisionist stance, Koreans for the most part refuse to entertain the notion that the sport's origins lie in Japan, and instead call it "kumdo", insisting that it originated in Korea.(5)
For example, to demonstrate this revisionist mentality, I have quoted the historical information placed on the official homepage of the Korea Kumdo Association.(6) この歴史修正主義を見るために、例えばKKAの公式サイトから引用してみよう。
“Our nation boasts a long history and tradition of swordsmanship. In the Koguryo dynasty (?-688) mountain ascetics perfected their technique in sword and other weapons.
Similarly, the Paekche kingdom held specialist departments for the manufacture of swords, and there are records suggesting that sword masters were sent to Japan to teach swordsmanship.
However, kenjutsu developed greatly during the Silla dynasty (668–935).
Where a military academy was established in the capital city of Kyongju and was open to young men of aristocratic birth. Upon completion of their training, these young men were given the title hwarang, meaning Flower Knight.
This period was indeed the time when the military arts flourished. One of the most significant contributions to future swordsmen to come form this period was the book Bon Gook Gum Bup (••••••). This treatise forms the basis for two-handed sword techniques and modern kumdo...
The Koryo dynasty (935-1392 AD) inherited the Silla kenjutsu legacy and continued to develop it further. However, during the Chosun dynasty (1392-1910), military arts became disfavoured compared with civil arts, and fell into disarray. On the other hand, during this period, the recipients of our culture in Japan continued to develop the culture of the sword and it began to flourish over there.”